DakshinaChitra – More than a Museum

Just beside exciting MGM Dizzee Wolrd on the ECR Road, there lies even more enthralling DakshinaChitra museum. It is a heritage site which preserves and protects South Indian culture. Both the Visual arts and performing arts are vividly exhibited in the 10 Acre sprawling area. The uniqueness of this museum lies in the way arts and artefacts are being exhibited. The culture of Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Kerala and Karnataka are depicted in the houses built by the organization. Each house was bought from a specific district which was the epicentre of a particular culture. They were then dismantled and then rebuilt at the museum.

The museum was conceptualized by Madras Craft Foundation, an NGO working to protect and preserve Indian culture. Later, with the grace of different organizations, the museum is still lively. Not only it depicts a wide range of arts, the museum also acts as a platform for many villagers to showcase their talent and sell their arts/artefacts. It gives the opportunity for the customers to buy genuine products directly from the artists. The performances such as traditional puppet show and dance shows from various states entertain the viewers. Also, a small glimpse of traditional games such as spin tops, break pots and board games evoke the nostalgia of childhood memories.

A major portion of the museum is allotted to the home state i.e., Tamil Nadu. The culture is highlighted in various houses. An Agraharam Brahmin house, the Ambur Art Gallery, weaver’s house from Kanchipuram Dist., and an agriculturist’s house from Thanjavur Dist are perfectly replicated. The Kalamkari art is also exhibited along with the process of weaving the Kalamkari saris. All the arts highlight the diversity of the rich heritage around us. For Kerala, the museum replicated Hindu and Syrian Christian houses. The way in which the people of Kerala adopts to the hot and humid climate can be understood through the houses built in the museum. Karnataka’s culture is exhibited through traders and weavers house from Chikmagalur and Bagalkot’s Districts respectively. For Andhra Pradesh, a typical Reddy’s house is portrayed.

DakshinChitra is around 36kms from Koyambedu Bus stand and can be easily reached by car or bus as it is on East Coast Road (ECR). Few kinds of traditional foods are available inside the museum and it also has got a family restaurant. It would atleast take half a day to cover the whole place. The museum is a must watch place for people interested in culture. It also provides a chance to create awareness on the forgotten culture to the younger generation.

Amaravati – The place for immortals


Being one of the capitals of the Sathavahana dynasty from second century BCE to second century CE, Amaravati was one the most prosperous cities from our history. Geographically located on the banks of river Krishna in Current Guntur district of Andhra Pradesh, Amaravati is chosen to be the capital of Andhra Pradesh after its separation from Telangana. Amravati is a conurbation of two metropolitan areas of Guntur and Vijayawada.

After 58 years of unionized rule and living, on June 2nd, 2014, both the brotherly states Telangana and Andhra Pradesh decided to part ways and form separate states as they were before 1956. Hyderabad, the capital of the united Andhra Pradesh lies in the heart of Telangana state and did not show any scope for being a combined capital for both the states as in the case of Chandigarh.

Here arises the concept of building a new state capital from scratch. All the cities of India had a long track record in the history and took the current shape of Capitals by substantial and continuous development. So, how feasible is it for us, to build a capital from foundations?

Temporary facilities for legislative buildings were set up and the staff was moved from Hyderabad to Velagapudi (An area in Amaravati) in March 2017. The Chief Minister’s office was moved in April 2016 itself. Now, we hardly have small skeletons of staff working at Hyderabad as the major portions of every administration has already been moved.

It’s not just Rome, even Hyderabad was not built in one day. After 1956, people have clearly portrayed Unified Andhra Pradesh as their home to last for centuries together. Not just investments but also relationships of the people has moved across both the regions. How unimpeded can people be in a place now they know is not theirs? Only time has to answer all these questions.

Amaravati, a 52,000 CRORE project as estimated by CRDA or at least a 10000 CRORE project as estimated by Andhra Pradesh government is estimated to take a first phase shape by 2024 (until then Hyderabad will serve as a residuary capital) and have a final shape by 2050. Planned to span over 217 sq.km, the project has entered the execution phase. The city is planned to be built in three phases and the Singapore government delegation headed by Iswaran has submitted the plan for second phase development recently.

The special status for the state that has been asked for has never been approved. The project also had huge rebellion from the local farmers about the land acquisitions. Amidst all these problems, Amaravati still stands as a ray of hope with a city with three national highways, 940 kms of roadways which is going to be a home for more than 14 million people providing 5.6 million jobs. With 21% of the city planned to be covered with greenery including islands, theme parks and 80 km of well-planned water network over the banks of river Krishna still gives us a hope of an oasis lying in the desert of problems.

Article Written By Bommineni Jyothirmaie Reddy

Book Review: My Gita- Devdutt Pattanaik


“Yada Yada hi Dharmasyaa glanirbhavati bharata.
Abhithanaamadharmasya tadat manam srijayam yaham.” (Chapter 4, Verse 7)

It is an elaborative yet eloquent book which has laid out the basics of life. The book comprises of 18 chapters similar to the Bhagavad Gita, but the interpretation by the Chief Belief Officer of Future Group, Devdutt Pattanaik is resoundingly easy to understand. I for one had a pre-conceived notion that the book might be philosophical, religious and all about God. But I was totally proved wrong.

The book starts with the definition and overview of Gita. The author then goes on to explain the meaning of Tyagi, Yoga and Yogi. All the three are distinctive and are explained elusively. The book incessantly stresses that the humans have a “Need for Association” and social acceptance. It is a proven fact that many people assert validation in life to make themselves feel important.

The explanation of Matsyayana is also provided in the context of life. People often ponder over the difference between Ramayana and Mahabharata in terms of the learning obtained from mythology. The difference between the yugas such as dvapara yuga and kali yuga is provided in terms that are understandable to the common man. The taxonomy used to explain important facts and concepts by Devdutt is intriguing. The usage of matrix to explain the difference of rules and principles, arrow diagrams and block diagrams for other concepts help the reader recall the same with minimal effort.

The book further delves deeper to help the reader understand the differences between deha, dehi, aatma and aham. All four are different and knowledge about the same is vital for a person to remain at peace. The elucidation of dharma and adharma is also outlined with the help of relevant context. The importance of subjectivity countermands objectivity in the real world unlike MCQ question papers at college or school. This concept is driven home with placid examples eliciting the perception of truth from the participants of the conversation.

The innocuous approach of Arjuna in Mahabharata guided by Krishna in the battlefield is synonymous to a guide seeker striving in his/her life to accomplish a goal. Krishna provides the words of wisdom to Arjuna on a constant basis to enable him to unleash his entire potential. The book further elicits the effects of the “Three Gunas” viz. Rajas, Tamas and Sattva in defining a person’s life. Greed drives away peace. The analysis of Maya and Moh is commendable. Speaking frankly, this was one of the best concepts explained in the book!

Also, one wonders the differences existing between heaven and hell, except the colloquial fact that states, suffering is in hell! Devdutt has conveyed as to why only one pandava went to heaven (Read the book for further details on who went to heaven) and not all. The book also highlights the involvement approach vis-à-vis the hermit and solitary approach which focuses on an amazing act called “Meditation”. The learnings one can embark on practicing the suggestions from the book is almost infinite.

So, why should one read this book? Should one be mythology savvy or a connoisseur to appreciate the script? My take on this is simple. The reader should accept the arguments of the author with an open mind. One need not necessarily be a connoisseur to appreciate the book. No doubt, one needs to be interested in listening to stories as most of the concepts in the book are substantiated with stories. All in all, this is an outstanding book which focuses on awakening the inner self of a person. I would rate the book a 4 on 5 and it is a must read for all. Business leaders have a lot of takeaways with respect to designing the motivational programs and leadership summits as well!

If you have found this article to be interesting, do comment in the box below! Happy learning!

Self-made artificial reality – “Dreams”


You can turn your can’t into a can when you can turn your dreams into plans. As Abdul Kalam once said, “you have to dream before your dream can come true”. Let us analyse what all you have dreamt for 20+ long years and some facts about your fantasy world of Dreams.

A daydream or a night dream, your brain now will never accept others as a Hero of your fictional world. But, believe me, until you turn four years old, your dreams would have never accepted you as a Hero. Yes! You should turn 4 years old to start your own dreams. Blessing you to have a long life, we also bless you to have 6 years of your life spent dreaming (its proven fact man! “6years”).

Had someone not dreamt about DNA double helical structure, Alternating current generator periodic table etc., I’m sure the science textbook would have been a lot thinner. Yes! They discovered or invented them after dreaming about them. It seems that you cannot read or tell the time in your dreams. Then how could Dmitri dream about a periodic table? Well, he left us without explaining it.

I’m sorry to tell all those 99 percentile scorers of the world, whom-so-ever you are, you will forget 90% of your dream in 10 minutes once you are awake. If you didn’t, then you definitely need a doctor. Also, understand that our brain functions more actively during the night than during the day. So from here on, you can challenge anyone that you were more intelligent during the night than during a day.

“Men, men and men” in a man’s dream but “men and women in equal numbers” in a female’s dream! Oops! Gender discrimination in dreams also. Men, please control the number of men in your dreams as dreams can be controlled. It’s called lucid dreaming. If you still can’t control, try having some female talking beside you while you dream as brain incorporates external voices into the dreams while dreaming. If this option is also not possible, then try to snore. You can’t dream while you snore.

Not everyone’s dreams are colourful. 12% of the people dream in black and white. Are you one amongst them? This doesn’t mean that blind people can’t dream. They dream about other senses like smell, taste and feel etc. My dog, your cat, his parrot, their cow every animal dreams. But remember everyone who comes into your dreams are the ones whom you would have seen at least once in your life. Hereafter, no confusion that some unknown girl has come into your dreams. Go, find her, she might be somewhere around.

Foretelling is completely possible by dreams. People of Titanic and 9/11 dreamt about their crash and believe me 18-38% of the foretelling has proved to be true. These kinds of dreams are called premonition dreams.

Haaa! Not all dreams are sweet dreams. There are negative sides for these dreams as well. Rapid eye movement (REM) is a stage of dream where you sleepwalk, injure yourself etc. there are cases where people killed and got killed by being in this state. Sleep paralysis occurs to some during their sleep where they report inability to move their body or strong evil presence in their room. Dimethyltryphamine, famously called as dream drug is available in the market which is actually banned. These help in prolongation of your dreams and take you to a state where you can’t differentiate between a real world and a dream world.

Finally, though there is a darker side for dreams as well, you still have a treatment for them and they are not life-threatening. If your aim is to work in Google, know the fact that Google was also an invention from a dream. So dream, dream and dream. “Have a fantabulous dream”.

Article Written by Bommineni Jyothirmaie Reddy

Hear the Whimper of our Rivers


As it’s always said, “The progress of rivers to the ocean is not as rapid as that of man to error”. Rivers have seen huge depletion from the past one century.

“Bindhya Himācala Yamunā Gaṅgā Ucchalajaladhitaraṅga” a country proud of its rivers and their heritage, a country which is both divided and united by rivers, a country whose origins were on the banks of a river called Indus, India. Rivers have changed the life of people. As they changed their course, so did the civilizations.

Rivers are no longer seen as abundant natural resources. They are private properties, sources for authority and possessions of states. All the rivers in India either flow into Arabian Sea or Bay of Bengal and there are some rivers which flow into Inner parts of India. With seven major rivers (Indus, Brahmaputra, Narmada, Tapi, Godavari, Krishna and Mahanadi) and their tributaries Indian River system is a host to one of the most fertile lands in the world.

We need not list down the factors that cause the depletion of rivers. We have heard enough about polluting the rivers, global warming, filling the river area with landfills and what not. To just understand few facts here, in the 70 years of Indian freedom the depletion of rivers has successfully been 70%. The per capita availability of water now is 1588m^3 which was as high as 5200m^3 in 1951 with year on year depletion rate at 8%. Where are we leading this to? A seasonal river flow or extinction of rivers? The most sacred river for Indians, the Ganga is listed amongst one of the most endangered rivers in the world.

Greatest civilizations like Harappa and Mohenjodaro vanished as the course of rivers along which they developed has changed. India owns only 4% of the total water available in the world and this is not just for drinking purpose, it also has to be used for agriculture, industrial purposes and household needs.

The only answer for all these problems is clearly known, taught, forced to follow and even told as tales. It’s the “trees”. It is high time to say an answer to people who say “As there is no water there are no trees in our region” it’s time to answer them telling “As there are no trees in your region there is no water”. Save trees need not necessarily mean planting trees. Understanding which products are made of trees and finding a renewable alternative for the same or conservative usage of those products can also make you a part of the mission to save the world for your children and their children.

In support of “Rally for Rivers – Lifelines of India” a campaign by Isha foundation headed by Sadhguru has come up with a plan to rejuvenation of the Indian rivers. “Everyone who consumes water must rally for Rivers” is a call given by Sadhguru. Even if you can’t make some time for this campaign any smallest act to save water and trees will together change the conditions of life for our future generations.

Article Written by Bommineni Jyothirmaie Reddy

The Hegemony of Feminism

Feminism as an idea has emerged through the ages. Started as a campaign to assert the basic Rights of women, the idea of feminism has been exploited by a few. Christine de Pizan was considered as the first writer ‘to take up her pen to defend her sex’ in 15th Century. Later, the first wave of feminism began in late 19th century to assert political rights (Right to vote and Representation). Adding on to this, the second wave of feminism began in late 20th century to assert sexuality, workplace and reproductive rights. The demands are evolving with the time and it is beneficial for the society. All these reasonable demands can be genuinely addressed with political will, but in the name of dignity, there are few under carpet demands which ought to be blatantly opposed.

A World Bank study in 2001 found that for every one standard deviation increase in female representation in Parliament, there would be 20% reduction in corruption. But a recent study points out that the impact of gender on depends on the societal norms. If the corruption is widely accepted in a society, then women tend to be as corrupt as men. Those women who successfully climbed the ladder by asserting their rights are not averse to the greed of money. It will definitely not hold to everyone. But, while demanding for their rights and dignity, are women forgetting the cost of assertion? Is it resulting in selfish feminism?

Few women emphasize their rights only when they need it. This irony can sometimes be observed around us. It is always an issue if someone asks dowry to marry ‘her’. But when it comes to her brother, he should be ‘well paid’ as he is the sole breadwinner. It is completely fine if her father accepts a bribe to buy her a new iPad. But, it is a big issue when a Chandigarh police officer accepts the bribe and refuses to file a FIR. She also demands a better earning husband though she has access to similar resources. Only when a husband earns more than her, he deserves the respect. Sometimes, even the concern for her security is being viewed as imposition of patriarchal norms by her parents.

The demand for 33% women reservation in legislature, entry of women into temples, stringent norms against marital rapes are all valid. From abolishing Sati to passing a strong Nirbhaya Act, Indian feminism has pocketed many successes. However, different levels of intervention are needed for different geographies, religions and castes across India. Sex ratio is skewed in Haryana where the sex selective abortions are rampant. So, government duty is to fight against female foeticide in these parts of the states. In rural areas, the patriarchal norms are still rampant. Here, the cultural intervention by NGOs is necessary. Muslim women face even more subjugation. Thankfully, Supreme Court abolished Triple Talaq and provide them a hope in Indian Legal system.

A wide range of disparities in Indian society is the dilemma for most of the feminists. As women gain more power and respect in the society, they should not forget the fact that their fight is for EQUALITY and not for HEGEMONY.

Hacking into the Indian Flight Booking


Flights are often the most expensive part of travel and most of us want to travel at the lowest cost as well as avail maximum service. People often are confused by the promotions provided by airlines and travel agents. This guide will provide you how you can book the cheapest flight in India:

Compare the prices: This might be the very straightforward thing that everyone does. There are popular flight compare websites like Skyscanner, Kayak, and Momondo that helps you compare the best prices. But here is the catch. They compare only popular flight ticketing platform. There may be other flight booking platform like Akbar travels that provide cheaper air tickets than Yatra.com, MakeMyTrip & Cleartrip etc. I would recommend you to try out Akbar travel and compare the fare of a flight with other popular platforms. You might be in for a surprise.

Find out the actual Price: Often, when you book tickets, the money that you end up paying would be higher than the actual fare. This is because of the taxes and value added services you choose while booking. While booking ensure that you choose the right options. Certain airlines provide student discount and you can avail extra baggage allowances without paying anything extra. Similarly, families and friends can also avail discounts. Ensure that you choose the right options before making the payment.

Some payment options would also charge you a convenience fee. Hence, ensure that you choose the right payment option. Use a proxy account to transfer the money to avail a cashback. You might be able to offset any extra charges.

Plan your booking: One of the fundas of flight booking – Book early. If you are booking atleast 8 weeks before your date of travel, you are sure to get the lowest fare. Mid-week is the best day of the week to purchase flight tickets. You will also find the cheapest fares on Wednesday. Or get ready to take the red-eye flight – flight departing late at night and arriving early the next morning.

You can also use a VPN to fake your location. Prices vary according to the IP Address location. But make sure that it’s not a “resident”-only fare. You may also have to pay in local currency.

Use the incognito mode. Why? Because travel events use your computer’s cookies to determine what kind of flight you’re interested in booking. Once they know what you’re looking for, they’ll raise prices accordingly. To prevent this from happening, you can either clear your browser cache or just open an incognito tab before starting the booking process.

Enrol for Frequent Flier Program: People often don’t know that most of the airlines in India offer a free membership to their Frequent Flier Program. Even though you are not a frequent flier, it is good to enrol with the membership program. People often forget to redeem miles. You will also be able to avail extra value added services in future when you travel.

You must also check with your bank to avail benefits while booking. Some credit card providers offer you cashback, discount or even free access to airport lounge.

Do you have any pro-tips for getting cheap airfare? Share them with us in the comments!

The Art of Choosing a Gift for A Girl


In 21st century, two things that you can never predict are the occurrence of World War III and a girl’s mentality. “What is the need for a gift now man!” can either mean that she seriously did not expect it or that you have bought a stupid gift.

Remember any gift which gains the response as “owwwww, it’s so cute, that’s fabulous, so sweet” is definitely a good gift. As no one on this earth can gift anything to enhance internal beauty, we try to concentrate on external beauty enhancing gifts. A recent research shows that the happiness quotient of a girl is dependent on her beauty quotient. People might think that beauty lies in the eyes of a beholder. Remember in the case of a girl, both the beauty and the beholder is the same girl.

What are the things that comes to your mind when you think of a girl? An elegant dress, makeup, footwear, accessories. So, let’s look at them individually.

Clothing: Unless you know her dressing style very well, don’t take a risk to get a dress. If you still want to choose one, three important things to keep in mind are the fit, colour and the brand. Fit will be of paramount priority as you don’t want the dress to be an antique in her ward robe which would remain untouched.

Cosmetics/Perfumes: Again, if you have a sound knowledge on the beauty brands in the market and the brands which the girl generally uses, go for this option. The usage of your gifts depends on the availability of the same with her. In this case I suggest you to go for a perfume. As it is an oddball to give an eyeliner or a kajal, if you choose to gift a cosmetic product, go for a lipstick/gloss.

Footwear: A safe zone for anyone to play in is the footwear. Unless you are not a person who likes colours like radium, any footwear is wearable for some or the other dress. The only thing you should be careful about is to choose ones with heels or without heels. I know that understanding the difference between a bellies, pumps and clogs is a mystery, go with a broader classification.

Accessories: This includes bags, purse, wallets, earrings, chains, rings, bracelets, hair accessories etc. etc. etc. This option is like a mega market of choices. Unless you don’t mess up with the colour and the brand, you will have a beautiful day. Even though you don’t understand the accessories to be worn for a particular dress, a decent one which you feel will go with any dress will make a clear difference.

These are the major categories one can start with. Although there are multiple other categories from which you can choose like chocolates, customized artefacts, antique pieces etc., start with the basic stuff. If you choose to get the girl all of the above as a set to take her to a party or so, best thing is tell the girl to choose things for herself. As we already said, personal satisfaction of a girl on the gifts she gets is paramount.

Article Written by Bommineni Jyothirmaie Reddy 

Trip to Andaman – 2

It takes 2 hours to travel to Havelock from Port Blair on a cruise. Also be aware that reservations for the cruise will be finished a day prior to the day of travel. The journey was quite peaceful, unlike return journey, as we travelled on a single wave. As soon as we reached Havelock, I scheduled Scuba Diving at one of the Private Scuba Diving Centres. All the bookings would be made through Divers association. The training and diving would consume two more hours. And it is not to be missed in Andaman as the clear waters and exotic corals cannot be easily found. You will be taken 7 m into the sea to enjoy the beauty of marine life. Below picture was taken by the photographer diving with me.

Pic: Left: Scuba Diving Pictures & Right-Havelock Islands

Later, we checked into Forest Guest House at Havelock. It has a lovely view as white sand Beach is attached to its compound. Just like Chandipur beach in Odsha, the water resides around 1km during the ebb tide. And one could go deep into the beach as they were no waves due to surrounding islands. Later, we visited one of the best beaches in World (Times, 2004), Radha Nagar beach. It is a wide beach covered with lush palm trees along the coastline. It is also peaceful and clean due to minimal human presence.

On the next day, we visited Kaala Pathar Beach. Though the name looks exciting, the aesthetics could not beat Radha Nagar Beach. It neither has place to swim or have fun. It’s just an over hyped beach at Havelock. Later we boarded the cruise to Port Blair at 3:00P.M. This is the most exciting journey of the whole trip. As the cruise has to pass through gigantic waves of the sea, it felt as if I am on a Giant wheel. Indeed, watching people worrying for their life on the secured boat was more fun.

Next day, we visited Rajiv Gandhi Sports Complex and took a return flight to Vijayawada via Chennai. The trip was memorable not just due to exotic locations, but because of ever green companions- Mom and Dad.

Trip to Andaman – 1

A-Adventure N-Nature D-Dangerous A- Aesthetic M-Majestic A-Addictive N-Nomadic

This is how one could define Andaman Islands. A 6 day Vacation turned into a memorable adventure due to perennial rains. I, along with my parents began our trip on 21st June and returned on 26th June covering Port Bair, Wandoor, Baaratang Islands and Havelock Islands. Though June is not an appropriate time to visit these islands, we went ahead due to paucity of time. However, there was no interruption to our program. I’m writing this blog as there is no consolidated information available on the internet to plan a 5 day tour. All the information is scattered.

We took a flight from Vijayawada to Port Blair on 21st. Since, there are no direct flights, we had to change at Chennai. Travelling from Vijayawada to Chennai is an experience in itself as the flight travels across the coast. SHAR, which is closed to public view, would be visible from the flight. And travelling to Port Blair from Chennai in a Monsoon season is also exhilarating experience. It was a tumultuous ride due to rough weather conditions. One could also watch exotic islands as the flight lands at Port Blair. On the same day, we visited Coblyn’s beach and Cellular jail. Coblyn’s beach is situated beside the mountains in Port Blair. A jet ride across the islands is not to be missed. Light and Sound show at Cellular Jail describes the hardship of our freedom fighters who were locked in the jail. Veer Sarvarkar was also locked in here for 10 years. Port Bliar airport was named after him. We checked into a Hotel for the night.

Coblyn Beaach, Port Bair, Andaman and Nicobar Islands

Cellular Jail, Port Blair, Andaman and Nicobar Islands

On 22nd, we travelled to Wandoor, which is a 25km drive from Port Blair. We directly visited the beach and headed towards M.G. Marine National Park. Unfortunately, due to some political issues Red Skin Island was closed. Also, due to Monsoons, Jollboy islands were also closed. These two are not to be missed as they offer sports games. We spent the whole day in Forest Guest House at Wandoor. It offers a great view of the nearby islands.

View from Forest Guest House, Wandoor(Night mode)

On 23rd, we had the most awaited and exciting drive to Baaratang. It has a reserve of Jarawas, who are considered Adivasis in India. Watching the primitive tribes and their culture was a real bliss. We could learn a lot of things from them. Of course, we are neither allowed to stop the vehicle nor interact with the tribes in the reserve. From Wandoor, it’s a 50kms ride till Jarkatang. From here all the vehicles will be escorted by a Convoy to avoid disturbance to Jarawa tribes. The reserve is a 49kms stretch through virgin forests. The forest is evergreen and offers a unique ecosystem. After reaching Baaratang, we travelled to Lime stone caves. It is a 20 min drive on a speed boat. Various kinds of Magnetites and Magnesites can be seen in the caves. Also be prepared for 1.5kms of exciting walk in the jungle. We returned to Port Blair using the same modes of transportation.

On the way to Baaratang, Andaman and Nicobar Islands

On 24th, we started off to World famous Havelock Islands. Radha Nagar Beach present over there is one of the best beaches in Asia. It contains white sand and crystal clear water along a wide stretch of land. It also gave me a chance to watch the most beautiful eco system on the planet (Corals) through Scuba Diving. Rather than the swathes of serene land, the travel to Havelock from Port Blair was the most exciting thing ever. Will discuss more about it in the next article.